What drove twenty seven men to gather in a frozen dilapidated barn and risk the hideous death that came with committing treason? Evidence given against former Portsmouth butcher, James Ings at his trial at the Old Bailey gives an explanation. After gate crashing the cabinet dinner he hoped he would have time to explain to the cabinet why he believed he had the right to decapitate and bag them up. His planned speech clearly marks the Peterloo massacre as one of the key motivators of the twenty seven men there that night. Ings planned to announce: “I shall say, my Lords, I have got as good men here as the Manchester Yeomanry; enter citizens and do your duty.” It was the Peterloo massacre of 16th August 1819 that drove his murderous anger.